Drinking water quality assessment , methods and methodology

  1. Methods and methodology

3.1. Study Area


Ratuwa River is located in the eastern part of Nepal. It originates from churepahad of Nepal and merges with the Kankai River in Bihar, India. This river serves as the eastern border of Damak, a big and developed city in the eastern part of Nepal. Damak is the second largest city in Jhapa district with population 105,743. It covers an area of 7,513 hectares and is at an average of 100 meters above sea level. It is located at latitude 26˚10’41”N and longitude 87˚41’46”E.

In Damak, the climate is warm and temperate. In winter, there is much less rainfall than in summer. The average temperature in Damak is 24.5˚c. The average annual rainfall is 2618mm. The driest month is December. The most precipitation falls in July, with an average of 764mm. With an average of 28.5˚c, June is the warmest month. In January, the average temperature is 16.7˚c. It is the lowest average temperature of the whole year.


                                          Fig: Map Showing Ratuwa River

(Source: www.damakmun.gov.np)

3.2. Methodology

A. Types of data collected

 Data for the research included background information of residents such as age, sex, household size, gender of household head as well as his or her education, occupation and income. The number of households per house as well as the types of sanitation facilities used by households, the persons who frequently disposed off waste, the most frequent means of disposing liquid and solid waste as well as where refuse and human excreta were deposited was investigated. With reference to health, the prevalent diseases suffered by respondents’ household members, NHIS registration, hospital attendance, indications of unhygienic conditions at the home and neighborhood level were investigated.

B. Sources of data

 Data for the research was from primary and secondary sources:

i. Primary data:

Primary data was sourced through the administration of structured questionnaires to respondents sampled within the river basin. Heads of households was interviewed and in the situation where heads of households was not available, an adult household member was interviewed. Water samples was collected and the result of laboratory analysis yielded primary data on pollution levels of the Ratuwa River. Primary data was also sourced through interviews of Government officials, municipal authorities and opinion leaders whose inputs were relevant to the research. In addition personal

observation was used and the evidence was recorded by means of pictures taken with a camera.

ii. Secondary data:

 Secondary data was sourced from books, relevant articles, journals, maps, as well as relevant publications and researches conducted on the subject matter by individuals and institutions.

C. Water sampling:

Water samples were collected from two sampling sites on the Ratuwa River (The water was collected by means of glass bottles, and was sent to lab for physical and chemical tests.

The dry season was selected as sampling period and two months was selected due to limited funds for water sampling. The samples was collected from each site in the months of March and April and tested for Temperature, pH, odour, conductivity, DO, BOD, COD.

D. Laboratory work

Temperature was recorded on the site and others parameters were tested in the lab by using pH meter, conductivity meter, DO meter, and thermometer.

3.3. Data Analysis:

Data was analyzed by using Microsoft Excel. Spreadsheet present tables of values arranged in rows and columns that can be manipulated mathematically using both basic and complex arithmetic operations and functions. To support data analysis, output data was presented in bar graphs, tables, line graphs and in addition relevant pictures was  used.

3.4 Research Design

Table 3: Methods and instruments used for analyzing physicochemical parameters

1pHpH meter
2Electrical ConductivityConductivity meter
4TDSTDS meter
5DODO meter


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *