TU thesis proposal environmental science

A case study on evaluation of quality and toxicity of tube well water, Ratuwamai -5,Morang.

        Submitted By:
                                                           Manoj Bhattarai

                          Submitted To:
                Department of Biology and Env. Science
                    Damak Multiple Campus

                  Research Project:

A case study on evaluation of quality and toxicity of tube well water.

    Water is absolutely essential not only for the existence of human life but also for plants, animals and all living organisms. Furthermore, it is essential that the required water should not comprise unwanted contaminations, harmful chemical substances or microorganisms (Raveneau & Burrough, 1988). Unfortunately, groundwater resources are being contaminated by various activities, mainly due to infiltration of pollutants into the soil sub-strata, site-specific quality like soil variety, aquifer depth, climate, period and recharge degree of an aquifer. These may affect the possibility and severity of a specific impurity in water (Satish Kumar, 2015). The chief resources of fresh water body generally obtained from surface water (lakes, ponds, rivers, streams etc.) and ground water (bore holes and well water).Groundwater plays an important role in various purposes such as domestic uses, industrial supply and irrigation in all over the world. As a result of increasing in world’s population, industrialization and urbanization may cause contamination of groundwater. The groundwater should not be used for drinking purposes until it has not been tested. Hence it is necessary to protect quality of groundwater. According to WHO 80% of diseases are arises due to contamination groundwater (Smith, A.H., 2000).
    Geochemistry and quality evaluation of water depends upon various physicochemical factors, mobility of elements, and climate (Bashir et al. 2013). Ion exchange mechanism between groundwater and composition of aquifer is also accountable for the occurrence of ions in water (Aghazadeh and Mogaddam 2010). Study of fundamental processes and factors that affect groundwater quality is necessary in managing significant resource (Sundaram et al. 2009). Surface water has been exploited for several purposes by humans. It serves as a source of potable water after treatment and as a source of domestic water without treatment particularly in rural areas in developing countries. It has been used for irrigation purposes by farmers, and fishermen get their occupation from harvesting fish in so many freshwater sources. It is used for swimming and also serves as centers for tourist attraction. Surface water, therefore, should be protected from pollution. Major point sources of freshwater pollution are raw and partially treated wastewater. The release of domestic and industrial wastewater has led to the increase in freshwater pollution and depletion of clean water resources [8]. Most quantities of wastewater generated in developing countries do not undergo any form of treatment. In few urban centers, various forms of wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs) exist but most of them are producing ill‐treated effluents, which are disposed of onto freshwater courses.
    Arsenic in groundwater is now a common phenomenon in many countries. The excess amount of arsenic in drinking water has been reported from various parts of the world, such as Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, Hungary, India, Mexico, Nepal, Taiwan, and USA. WHO reported that at least 140 million people of 50 countries are exposed to arsenic through arsenic-contaminated groundwater at levels above 10 µg/L and a majority of them live in India and Bangladesh.. In Bangladesh and India, the groundwater arsenic contamination initially emerged as a major health issue, and later came to be known as the worst arsenic-affected countries in the world in terms of population exposure to arsenic-contaminated water. The situation in Bangladesh so far is regarded as the biggest environmental arsenic poisoning, with about an estimated 50 million people being at risk of exposure. In 1993, Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh detected four tubewells in Chamagram village of Nawabganj district that yielded arsenic-contaminated groundwater, and in the following year, eight arsenicosis patients were identified in the same village. Soon after the detection of arsenic contamination in tubewell water, Bangladesh government with support from the national and international non-government organizations (NGOs) initiated a number of programs to determine the extent of arsenic contamination problem. Discharge of domestic and industrial effluent wastes, leakage from water tanks, marine dumping, radioactive waste and atmospheric deposition are major causes of water pollution. Heavy metals that disposed off and industrial waste can accumulate in lakes and river, proving harmful to humans and animals.
    Keywords Arsenic Tube well water Irrigation 
    Source apportionment Health risk Pakistan
    Arsenic (As) pollution in groundwater (GW) is a
    human health threat affecting millions of people
    worldwide (Katsoyiannis et al. 2015), particularly in
    andPakistan(Bhowmiketal.2015; Amini et al.
    2008). The situation is much worse in semiarid and
    arid regions, where groundwater availability is crit-
    ical for both drinking and irrigation purposes (Ad-
    hikary et al. 2010)
    Microbial contamination of drinking water quality is the second leading risk factor for diarrheal diseases which are the fifth leading cause of death in children under five years old worldwide (GBD 2016 Diarrhoeal Disease Collaborators, 2018; Roth et al., 2018). According to the 2016 Global Burden of Disease estimates, an estimated 1.1 billion episodes of diarrhea occur annually in these children, with south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa accounting for ninety percent of the cases (GBD 2016 Diarrhoeal Disease Collaborators, 2018; GBD 2016 Mortality Collaborators, 2017).

1.1. Objective:
Board Objective:
The main objective of this research is to evaluate the quality and toxicity of tube well water on Ratuwamai-5
Specific Objective:
More specifically the research objectives are:
• To assess the water quality parameters (DO, BOD, PH, EC, TDS, Phosphourous,Iron, Arsenic, Nitrate, E.Coli) from different tube wells of study area.
• To assess negative impacts of tube well water of study area.
• To assess the tube well water wheather drinkable or not.
1.2. Rationale of Study:
The goal of this study is to know about the quality and toxicity of drinking water of own place. Present study aimed to assess and compare the ground water quality with WHO standards and its related diseases in study area. These parameters(physical and Chemical) are used to find out the quality of water for drinking purpose . This study reveals the condition of water either it is toxic or not , also the water borne diseases such as Cholera , Diarrahoea , Jaundice etc .This study also helps to check the contamination of ground water with pesticides , fertilizers used in the farming field that runoff and percolate. In this study we will compare the obtained data of parameters and compare according to standards given by Govt. of Nepal and World health organization(WHO).

1.3. Study Area:
Ratuwamai municipality ward-5 is located in Koshi zone, Morang, at lat 26°29’14.4″and long. 87°38’15.2″E. It is accessible after 1-1.25 hours drive from urlabari chowk along the East West highway. It is under developing municipality with a problem of pure water since there is no any water pipeline system.

Fig: Study Area.
1.4.Sampling Methods:
1.4.1. Primary Data:
i. Water Quality
For water quality analysis, different parameters will be analysed using different methods.
Table 1: Physical parameters measured in the field.
SN Parameters Methods/Instrument Used
1 Temperature Thermometer
2 Dissolved Oxygen DO Meter
3 Conducticity Conductivity Meter
4 pH pH Meter
5 E-Coli

Table 2: Chemical Parameters tested in the lab.

SN Parameters Methods Equipment/Probe
1 BOD5 Titration
2 Nitrate Phenol Disulphonic acid method
3 Phosphate
4 Free CO2 Titration
5 Hardness Titration

Burette, Pipette, Conical flask etc
6 CaCO3 Titration
7 Chloride Titration
9 Alkanity Titration
10 Arsenic

ii. Impact analysis:
The objective of impact analysis of water will be studied by Questionnaire survey, Meeting, Focus group discussion etc. The obtained data from water quality test will be compared and analyzed with standard water quality index provided by Drinking water index given by govt. Of Nepal and also with Drinking Water Quality Index given by WHO.
1.4.2. Secondary data:
Quantitative data that may support the research work will be drawn from relevant sources.It may include official reports, related documents, Previous surveys data and publications from relevant sources.
1.4.3. Data Analysis:
All the datas from the survey will be quantified and analyzed with the help of Ms Excel. Different statistical tools like mean, median, mode will be used to present the data and relevant statistical graphs, charts such as pie chart, bar diagrams etc.will be used to represent the result in appropriate manner and effectively.

1.5 Expected Outcome:
This research would have following outcomes:
• This study helps to view overall map of tubewell users around study area.
• The data obtained can be used to obtain different relations and comparision. Can help in analysis of water quality and toxicity with health condition of people.
• Analysis of tubewell water of study area is wheather drinkable or not.
• The study will reveal the status of water and its impact on health of people.
• The study will be a useful source of information for the VDC.
• The study will bridge the gap of information about water quality for future study.

1.6. Time Frame

SN Activities Month
Mangsir Poush Magh Falgun Chaitra Baisakh
1 Literature Review
2 Field Visit Preparation
3 Field Visit & Data Collection
4 Data analysis
5 Report Writing & Submission

Yinn Kay Khaing , Khin Htay Win, Thidar Khaing, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 9, Issue 7, July 2019 744 ISSN 2250-3153

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