Drinking water quality assessment conclusion

Discussion and Conclusion

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5.1.1 Causes of pollution of Ratuwa River

Based on available data and testing it was found that the major causes of pollution of Ratuwa River were dumping of waste into the Ratuwa River. Wastes from the city area as well as the waste of the locality were dumped into this river which makes the river water polluted and unfit for the domestic purpose. According to the respondents it was found that the dead bodies of animals were thrown in the river instead of burying. The sewage or waste water from other domestic activities was channeled into the Ratuwa River. All these activities made the river water polluted. There were no proper bathing and toilet facilities for the people living nearby the Ratuwa River. Waste water from the bathing facility was disposed onto the streets and channeled into the Ratuwa River. Sewage was channeled into Ratuwa River because there was no proper sewage network. People living near the Ratuwa River threw the household waste into the river.

5.1.2 Health Effects

Based on the survey it was found that the most common illness in the respondents were fever, typhoid and diarrhoea.57% of the respondents suffered from illness while rest of them were healthy. Children were mostly affected as related to the adult. The vulnerability of diseases was high in the children. Children were most vulnerable to these water related disease due to their naturally curious habits. They play in the river by swimming, play on rubbish dumps and on open ground which is often littered with human excreta. Rubbish that is recurrently dumped into the river and serves as good breeding grounds for mosquitoes. This contributes to the incidence of malaria amongst children in the river basin. There was a positive relationship between river pollution, playing in the river water and water related diseases that were reported by respondents.

5.1.3 Water Quality Parameters

According to the laboratory test and field test, it was found that the pranges from 7.3-7.8. It indicates that the river water is suitable for the domestic purposes but not for drinking. Similarly, the Electrical Conductivity of different samples ranges from 252µs- 495µs. It indicates that it supports diverse aquatic life. Temperature was measured at the spot which ranges from 30-310c. Likewise, the total dissolved solid i.e.TDS was also measured and TDS ranges from 163ppm-330ppm. It means there was slightly presence of potassium, chloride and sodium which make water unfit for human consumption. Lastly, DO was also measured which was found to be ranging from 2.1-4.1mg\l. Do levels which remain as low as 1mg\l can result in widespread fish kills.  

The above results showed that the water is unfit for direct consumption. To make water suitable for drinking it has to go through different water treatment processes. The water treatment processes includes sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, chlorination, boiling etc. 

5.2 Recommendations

Based on the available data, findings of study and existing condition of source, reservation, collection and supply system, following recommendation are made: 

  • Physico-chemical and Microbiological analysis of drinking water should be performed on regular basis.
  • Regular monitoring of drinking water reservation and supply schemes must be performed and necessary maintenance should be undertaken for quality control.
  • Prior to water distribution, chlorination is to be performed regularly to maintain the recommended level of residual chlorine for drinking water.
  • Regular and necessary maintenance of water supply system for quality control should be implemented to ensure public health safety.
  • Public awareness programs should be effectively conducted for improving sanitation condition.
  • Ministry of Health and population should develop strategy for implementation of NDWQS-2062 through periodic surveillance of water quality in all municipalities as well as VDCs. 
  • Analysis of toxic heavy metals should be done sufficiently to support a human health risk assessment for these compounds.
  • Further detailed study is recommended to know the status of arsenic in drinking water at rural parts of Nepal.

References

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North eastern Rivers of Thailand Using Time Series and Water Quality Index Models.

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ANNEXES

Questionnaire Survey

QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE RATUWA RIVER BASIN

The purpose of this questionnaire is to elicit information on the causes of the pollution of the Ratuwa River and its effect on the health of residents of the river basin. The information provided will be used solely for academic purposes and would be treated as confidential. Thank you for your cooperation.

Please tick or fill in where appropriate.

  1. Background information

1. Name of the respondent:

2. Sex a. Male ( ) b. Female ( )

3. Age: Below 10 ( ) b. 11- 20 ( ) c. 21-30 ( ) d.31- 40 ( ) e. 41-50 ( ) f. 51- 60 ( )

     g. above 60 ( )

4. Are you employed? A. Yes ( ) B. No ( )

5. What is the nature of your work?

    a. Trading ( ) b. Services ( ) c. Government ( ) d. Farming ( )

    e. Transport ( ) f. Student ( ) g. Other (Specify)……………

6. How long have you lived in this dwelling unit?

    a. < 3months ( ) b. 3 – 11months ( ) c. 1-5yrs ( ) d. 6- 10yrs ( ) e. above 10 yrs ( )

7. Where did you live before settling in your dwelling unit? ……………………………………….

8. What is the highest level of education you have attained?

    a. Primary ( ) b. JHS ( ) c. SHS ( ) d. College ( ) e. Middle school ( ) f. University ( )

    g. Never Schooled ( ) g. Other (Specify)……………………

B. Causes of the pollution of the Ratuwa River

1. In which type of dwelling do you live?

    a. Rented ( ) b. personally built ( ) c. Family House ( ) d. Other (specify)

2. What is the number of households in your home?

    a. 1 ( ) b. 2-5 ( ) c. 6-9 ( ) d. 10 and Above ( )

3. What is the average number of persons in each household?

    a. 1 ( ) b. 2-5 ( ) c. 6-9 ( ) d. 10 and Above ( )

4. How many persons are there in your household?

    a. 1 ( ) b. 2-5 ( ) c. 6-9 ( ) d. 10 and Above ( )

5. Do you have a bathing facility in your house? A. Yes ( ) B. No ( )

6. If yes, which of the following best describes the bathing facility used by your                    household?

   a. Shared by household alone ( ) b. Shared by entire house ( ) c. Outside of house ( )

    d. Public bath ( )

7. Does your house have a shower?

    a. Shared by household alone ( ) b. Shared by entire house ( ) c. Shared with other       nearby houses ( ) d. Public bath ( ) e. Other ……………………..

8. Is your dwelling connected to a sewage network? a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

9. What is the primary means by which wastewater from your bathing facility is disposed

    off?

    a. Into public sewage network ( ) b. Into gutters ( ) c. Unto the streets ( )

    d. Into septic tank ( ) e. Channeled into Ratuwa river ( ) f. Other

10. What is the primary means by which wastewater from other domestic activities is       disposed off?

   a. Into public sewage network ( ) b. Into gutters ( ) c. Onto the streets ( )

   d. Into septic tank ( ) e. Channeled into Ratuwa river ( ) f. Other

11. Does your house have its own private toilet? a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

12. If yes, which of the following best describes the type of toilet in your house?

   a. Water closet connected to public sewage network ( ) b. Water closet connected to          septic tank ( ) c. Service or bucket latrine ( ) d. Others ………

13. Does your community have a public toilet facility? a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

14. Which type of toilet does your household use most frequently?

  a. Water closet connected to public sewage network ( ) b. Water closet connected to    septic tank ( ) c. Service or bucket latrine ( ) d. Public toilet ( ) e. Open defecation in river or near the river ( ) f. Open defecation on refuse dumps ( ) g. Other

15. What is the primary means by which toilet from your household is disposed off?

  a. Into public sewage network ( ) b. Into gutter ( ) c. Unto street ( )

  d. Into septic tank ( ) e. Channeled into Ratuwa river ( ) f. Other……….

  g. Don’t know ( )

16. Are there any reasons for channeling sewage into the Ratuwa river?

  a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

17. If yes, what are those reasons?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

18. Do you join a queue when you use a public? A. Yes ( ) B. No ( )

19. If yes, how long do you usually wait in the queue? …………………..

20. At what period in the day are there long queues?

   a. Morning ( ) b. Afternoon ( ) c. Evening ( ) d. Night ( )

21. Do you pay for the use of the toilet facility? a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

22. If yes, how much do you pay? ………….

23. How do children in your household pass stool?

  a. Use of toilet sanitary pads ( ) b.Cloth or napkins ( ) c. Chamber pot ( )

  d. Use of adult toilet seat ( ) e. others.

24. What is usually done to dispose off the stool of children in your household?

  a. Put/rinsed into toilet or latrine ( ) b. Put/rinsed into drain or ditch ( ) c. Thrown into   household litter bin ( ) d. Burried ( ) e. Thrown into river or along its banks ( ) f. left in the open ( ) g. Others …………………………

25. What is the most frequent means by which your household disposes of refuse?

  a. Dumped into open space ( ) b. Dumped into public container ( ) c. Burnt ( )

  d. Composted ( ) e. Burried ( ) f. Dumped into or near the Ratuwa river ( )

  g. Collected by individual sanitation contractors ( ) h. Door to door collection by ( )

  i. Other (specify)…………………………………………..

26. Why do you use this means of disposing off refuse as mentioned in question 25?

……………………………………………………………………………………………

27. Which member of your household usually disposes off household waste?

  a. Adult man ( ) b. Adult woman ( ) c. Female child under 15 years ( )

  d. Male child under 15 years ( ) e. Others ………………………

28. Do you use pesticides? a. yes ( ) b. no ( )

C. HEALTH

1. Which of the following is the most common illness in your community?

  a. Malaria ( ) b. Diarrhea ( ) c. Cholera ( ) d. Fever ( ) e. Typhoid ( ) f.   Others……………………….

2. What illnesses have you suffered in the last three months? ( Please, you may tick more   than one option)

  a. Malaria ( ) b. Diarrhea ( ) c. Cholera ( ) d. Fever ( ) e. Typhoid ( )

      f. I’ve not suffered any illness ( ) g. Other…………….

3. What in your view were the causes of the illnesses in question 2 above?

  a. Poor sanitation in neighborhood ( ) b. presence of mosquitoes ( ) c. Poor personal    hygiene ( ) d. Contact with river water ( ) e. Other …………………………

4. Do children in your household play in the Ratuwa river?

  a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

5. If yes, how often?

  a. Very Often ( ) b. Often ( ) c. less often ( )

6. Do you know of any illnesses suffered by any of the children in your household in the  last three months? a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

7. If yes, which one? (Please, you may tick more than one option)

  a. Malaria ( ) b. Diarrhea ( ) c. Cholera ( ) d. Fever ( ) e. Typhoid ( ) f. Skin disease ( )                   g. Other (Specify)………………

8. How often do you attend the hospital in a year?

  a. Once ( ) b. Twice ( ) c. Three times ( )  d.Four times ( ) e. Other……………….

9. In the past three months, how many times has your child been diagnosed with the   disease mentioned in Q7?

  a. Once ( ) b. Twice ( ) c. Three times ( ) d. Four times ( ) e. Other……………….

10. Do you use the Aboabo River for any purpose? a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

11. If yes please indicate which purpose(s)

  a. Water crops ( ) b. Fishing ( ) c. Washing ( ) d. Disposing waste ( ) e. Drinking ( )

  f. source of water for industry ( ) h. Others ………………….

12. Please mention in your view the most important cause of pollution of the    Ratuwariver. ………………………………………….

13. Do you know of any laws that prohibit the pollution of rivers?

  a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

14. Which of the following uses would you put the Ratuwariver to if it was not polluted

    ( Please indicate 1st, 2nd,3rd, in order of most frequently )

  a. Washing …. b. Cooking .… c. Drinking …. d. Bathing ….. e.Fishing….

  e. Other ………..

15. Do persons in your house eat food crops watered with the river water ?

  a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )  

  If yes how often? A. Very often ( ) b. Often ( ) c. Less Often ( )

16. Do persons in your house eat fish caught from the river? a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

  If yes how often? A. Very often ( ) b. Often ( ) c. Less Often ( )

D. Measures put in place to control pollution.

1. Do you know of any measures put in place by residents of your community to control   pollution of the Ratuwa river?

   a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

2. If yes, what are these measures?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Do you know of any measures put in place by the government to control the pollution  of the Ratuwa River?

  a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

4. If yes, what are these measures?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. What in your view should be done to control the pollution of the Ratuwa River?

(Please rank 1st, 2nd3rd etc)

  a. Arrest offenders ………..

  b. Construct drain …………

  c. Educate residents on the need to protect rivers ……….

  d. Provision of enough drainage systems ………..

  e. Others ………………………………………………

6. Do you use pesticides? a.Yes( ) b.No( )

7.Do you have any idea that the final outlet of the pesticides is the river? a.Yes( ) b.No( )

8. Do you know what water pollution is? a.Yes( ) b.No( )

9. How concerned are you about the water pollution?

10. Do you know the waste from your farm animals is also the source of water pollution?              

    a.Yes( ) b.No( )

11. Do you have drainage system? a.Yes( ) b.No( )

12. If yes where is the discharge of the drainage system in your locality?

13. Further comments/Recommendations

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Annexes 2

Fig: Survey  

 

Manoj

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